Satoru: A lot of research papers are not much different from this . . . they make only marginal sense. Melissa: Indeed, it's amazing how much writing is basically rubbish. Liao: Why make such judgments? Are we actually in a position to tell? What seems 'useful' at one point might appear to be rubbish later on. Tim: True, but judgments are necessary for decisions. Liao: More often than not, they aren't.